The MCI has prioritized the development of telecommunication infrastructure since 2010, establishing 5,956 PLIK, or subdistrict internet service providers, 709 regencies with Wi-Fi connections, and 33 184 villages with internet connections.
Internet and mobile service is generally provided by large telecom companies.
With more than 100 million internet users, Indonesia could become the fourth largest online market by 2020, according to a 2016 study by Google and Temasek.
The impact of social media in the presidential election won by Joko Widodo in 2014 encouraged people to use web-based platforms for crowdsourced local election monitoring and other initiatives in 20.
However, the internet’s potential to facilitate change is undermined by increasing government control over online content on grounds of national security and morality.
A 2014 decree issued by the Ministry of Communication and Information (MCI) allows internet service providers (ISPs) to block “negative” content at their own discretion, resulting in highly uneven and opaque censorship practices affecting entire platforms, including Vimeo, Netflix, Imgur and Reddit.
As part of the Moluccan Ring program, Telkomsel launched the Sulawesi Maluku Papua Cable System (SMPCS) in 2015, an undersea fiber-optic cable which aims to provide access to 34 million users, connecting 8 provinces and 34 regencies in the east, areas formerly served only by satellite connections with limited bandwidth.
Most base transceiver stations (BTS) which facilitate mobile 3G internet connections are built by private providers, who determine the number and location based on the market.Often resulting in pre-trial detention, charges facilitate retaliation for online expression, even in cases that never make it to a court.Freedom on the Net 2016 asked researchers from India, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Jordan, Mexico, Nigeria, and Tunisia to examine threats marginalized groups face online in their countries.Although access is available, there has been little progress in improving connection speeds, which averaged 3.0 Mbps in 2015, far below some Asia Pacific countries such as Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, and below the global average of 5.1 Mbps.In December 2015, the government launched faster 4G services, which are accessible from major telecom providers, including the three largest, Telkomsel, Indosat, and XL-Axiata, though poor network infrastructure makes service quality unreliable.Government officials also pressured social media and communications app providers to monitor and restrict content, in one case causing LINE to remove stickers depicting LGBTI themes from its online store.