A town in the neighbouring Dindigul district is called Vada Madurai (North Madurai) and another in Sivagangai district is called Manamadurai.
The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 7th-century poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam written by Paranjothi Munivar.
The word Madurai may be derived from Madhura (sweetness) arising out of the divine nectar showered on the city by the Hindu god Shiva from his matted hair.
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A study based on the data available with the Indian Meteorological Department on Madurai over a period of 62 years indicate rising trend in atmospheric temperature over Madurai city, attributed to urbanisation, growth of vehicles and industrial activity.
A total of 100,324 were under the age of six, constituting 51,485 males and 48,839 females.
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 6.27% and .31% of the population respectively.
The average literacy of the city was 81.95%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.
Madurai has important government educational institutes like the Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College, Madurai Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute.
Madurai city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the Municipal Corporation Act.
Madurai was the longest continuous capital city until British rule in India, and was the first major settlement in central and southern Asia..
Madurai has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939., also anglicised as silpa sastra meaning rules of architecture) related to urban planning.
These squares retain their traditional names of Aadi, Chittirai, Avani-moola and Masi streets, corresponding to the Tamil month names and also to the festivals associated.
The temple prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elobrate festival calendar in which dramatic processions circumambulate the shrines at varying distances from the centre.