acute stress disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by development of anxiety, dissociative, and other symptoms within one month following exposure to an extremely traumatic event.If persistent, it may become posttraumatic stress disorder.amnestic disorders mental disorders characterized by acquired impairment in the ability to learn and recall new information, sometimes accompanied by inability to recall previously learned information.anxiety disorders mental disorders in which anxiety and avoidance behavior predominate, i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance-induced anxiety disorder.attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder a controversial childhood mental disorder with onset before age seven, and characterized by inattention (e.g., distractibility, forgetfulness, not appearing to listen), by hyperactivity and impulsivity (e.g., restlessness, excessive running or climbing, excessive talking, and other disruptive behavior), or by a combination of both types of behavior.autistic disorder autism; a severe pervasive developmental disorder with onset usually before three years of age and a biological basis; it is characterized by qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and capacity for symbolic play, by restricted and unusual repertoire of activities and interests, and often by cognitive impairment.binge-eating disorder an eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating, as in bulimia nervosa, but not followed by inappropriate compensatory behavior such as purging, fasting, or excessive exercise.bipolar disorders mood disorders with a history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes, usually with present or previous history of one or more major depressive episodes; included are bipolar I d., characterized by one or more manic or mixed episodes, bipolar II d., characterized by one or more hypomanic episodes but no manic episodes, and cyclothymic disorder.The host personality usually is totally unaware of the alternate personalities; alternate personalities may or may not have awareness of the others.dysthymic disorder a mood disorder characterized by depressed feeling, loss of interest or pleasure in one's usual activities, and other symptoms typical of depression but tending to be longer in duration and less severe than in major depressive disorder.factitious disorder a mental disorder characterized by repeated, intentional simulation of physical or psychological signs and symptoms of illness for no apparent purpose other than obtaining treatment.factitious disorder by proxy a form of factitious disorder in which one person (usually a mother) intentionally fabricates or induces physical (Munchausen syndrome by proxy) or psychological disorders in another person under their care (usually their child) and subjects that person to needless diagnostic procedures or treatment, without any external incentives for the behavior.gender identity disorder a disturbance of gender identification in which the affected person has an overwhelming desire to change their anatomic sex or insists that they are of the opposite sex, with persistent discomfort about their assigned sex or about filling its usual gender role.intermittent explosive disorder an impulse control disorder characterized by multiple discrete episodes of loss of control of aggressive impulses resulting in serious assault or destruction of property that are out of proportion to any precipitating stressors.lymphoproliferative disorders a group of malignant neoplasms arising from cells related to the common multipotential lymphoreticular cell, including lymphocytic, histiocytic, and monocytic leukemias, multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, and Hodgkin's disease.mental disorder any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by the presence of distressing symptoms, impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, or other disorders mental disorders characterized by disturbances of mood manifested as one or more episodes of mania, hypomania, depression, or some combination, the two main subcategories being bipolar disorders and depressive disorders.
It may occur with or, rarely, without agoraphobia.personality disorders a category of mental disorders characterized by enduring, inflexible, and maladaptive personality traits that deviate markedly from cultural expectations and either generate subjective distress or significantly impair functioning. pervasive developmental disorders disorders in which there is impaired development in multiple areas, including reciprocal social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communications, and imaginative activity, as in autistic disorder.phagocytic dysfunction disorders a group of immunodeficiency conditions characterized by disordered phagocytic activity, occurring as both extrinsic and intrinsic types. substance-related disorders any of the mental disorders associated with excessive use of or exposure to psychoactive substances, including drugs of abuse, medications, and toxins.
Bacterial or fungal infections may range from mild skin infection to fatal systemic infection.phonological disorder a communication disorder characterized by failure to use age- and dialect-appropriate sounds in speaking, with errors occurring in the selection, production, or articulation of sounds.posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) an anxiety disorder caused by an intensely traumatic event, characterized by mentally reexperiencing the trauma, avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli, numbing of emotional responsiveness, and hyperalertness and difficulty in sleeping, remembering, or concentrating.reactive attachment disorder a mental disorder of infancy or early childhood characterized by notably unusual and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness, usually associated with grossly pathological care.somatization disorder a somatoform disorder characterized by multiple somatic complaints, including a combination of pain, gastrointestinal, sexual, and neurological symptoms, and not fully explainable by any known general medical condition or the direct effect of a substance, but not intentionally feigned or produced.somatoform disorders mental disorders characterized by symptoms suggesting physical disorders of psychogenic origin but not under voluntary control, e.g., body dysmorphic disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis, pain disorder, somatization disorder, and undifferentiated somatoform disorder.substance-induced disorders a subgroup of the substance-related disorders comprising a variety of behavioral or psychological anomalies resulting from ingestion of or exposure to a drug of abuse, medication, or toxin. The group is divided into substance use d's and substance-induced d's .substance use disorders a subgroup of the substance-related disorders, in which psychoactive substance use or abuse repeatedly results in significantly adverse consequences.
n syndrome characterized by short attention span, difficulty concentrating, and possibly hyperactivity.
Affects children and adults; males affected 10 times more often than females.
Recent research suggests that inherited biological and genetic factors contribute approximately 56% of the risk for developing an eating disorder.
Individuals who have a mother or a sister with anorexia nervosa are approximately twelve times more likely to develop anorexia and four times more likely to develop bulimia than other individuals without a family history of these disorders.
For example, serotonin (discussed below) can affect sleep, eating, temperature regulation, muscle movement, memory, and host of other behaviors depending on the specific receptors stimulated, and where in the body or brain those receptors are located.
The neurotransmitter serotonin affects binging behavior in bulimics.
Neurotransmitters released from one cell travel across a cellular space (called a synapse) and attach to another cell's receptors.
These receptors are specifically designed to receive certain neurotransmitters.
Research has also focused on abnormalities in the structure or activity of the hypothalamus, a brain structure responsible for regulating eating behaviors.